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Table 1 Comparative ideal types of debt reciprocity a

From: Ethnic moralities and reciprocity: towards an ethic of South-South relations

Feature Indian rina b Filipino utang na loob c
Definition - Debt, obligation, responsibility, bond, connectedness. - Debt inside oneself; sense of gratitude; obligation to return a favour.
Expected payment - Has material basis and implications. - Variable (with interest, partial or incomplete) depending on rank (Hollnsteiner 1973).
- Appropriate hospitality toward guests (Satapatha Brahmana in Prasad 2007: 65).
Emotional involvement - High - High
Sanction - No explicit sanction - Shame (hiya)
Social function - Draws individuals to each other in obligatory relationships or connectedness. - Bridges different class groups
- A mode of redistributing resources.
  1. aTemplate of comparison adopted from Hollnsteiner (1973); b(Prasad 2007: 65–66); cHollnsteiner (1973: 73, 85).