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Table 2 Comparing Confucianism with realism, liberalism and constructivism

From: Beyond dependency: the promise of Confucianism in Post-Westphalia International relations

  Confucianism Realism Liberalism Constructivism
Level of analysis Individual State State + Non-State Actors Agency Structural Dialectic
Key Tenets Humaneness, Righteousness, Propriety, Knowledge, Integrity Statism, Survival, Self-Help Comparative Advantage Norms
System outcomes Under holism: nothing opposite Hegemony, Zero-sum game: conflict inevitable Interdependence, Trade war Regionalism
Under Datong: A harmonious world
Hierarchy/Order: Unequal but benign